The External Environment
A different argument says that the government should not stop businesses doing whatever it takes to create growth and employment. This argument says managers are products of their society, and won’t do anything that is against the interests of that society – managers have their standards, too, and won’t work for an employer that asks them to take part in wrong actions. Businesses are therefore self-regulating. A business that starts to behave in an unacceptable manner will find it increasingly hard to recruit workers, and to sell products, until the business decides to change its behaviour into a more acceptable form.
However, this argument tends to overlook the very great imbalance in power and information. Employees and customers don’t always know or understand what businesses are up to. Employees (even managers) might feel they can’t afford to lose their job, and so feel pressured to agree to behaviour they don’t really approve of.
Businesses and Stakeholders
A business is owned by its shareholders. A traditional view is that the behaviour of the business is nobody’s business but the owners’, the shareholders who are interested in profit.
A more modern view is to consider all the groups of people that are affected by a business’ behaviour – employees, customers, suppliers, the local community – and not just the shareholders.
The word ‘stakeholders’ is used to describe this wider community of interests. Some investment funds and pension companies refuse to invest in businesses whose behaviour they disapprove of eg arms manufacturers.
Business & Ethics
Ethical behaviour is morally ‘good’ behaviour. Businesses have always been ethical to the extent that their owners and managers have been interested in ethical behaviour (sometimes very little). There is now a new and strong interest from a growing number of businesses in ethical behaviour, especially in large MNCs which operate in different societies with different ethical standards. Some businesses even employ professional philosophers to help them understand the ethical consequences of their behaviour.
All outside factors that may affect an organization make up the external environment. The external environment is divided into two parts:
Directly interactive: This environment has an immediate and firsthand impact upon the organization. A new competitor entering the market is an example.
Indirectly interactive: This environment has a secondary and more distant effect upon the organization. New legislation taking effect may have a great impact. For example, complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers to update their facilities to accommodate those with disabilities.
Directly interactive forces include owners, customers, suppliers, competitors, employees, and employee unions. Management has a responsibility to each of these groups. Here are some examples:
Owners expect managers to watch over their interests and provide a return on investments.
Customers demand satisfaction with the products and services they purchase and use.
Suppliers require attentive communication, payment, and a strong working relationship to provide needed resources.
Competitors present challenges as they vie for customers in a marketplace with similar products or services.
Employees and employee unions provide both the people to do the jobs and the representation of work force concerns to management.
The second type of external environment is the indirectly interactive forces. These forces include sociocultural, political and legal, technological, economic, and global influences. Indirectly interactive forces may impact one organization more than another simply because of the nature of a particular business. For example, a company that relies heavily on technology will be more affected by software updates than a company that uses just one computer. Although somewhat removed, indirect forces are still important to the interactive nature of an organization.
The sociocultural dimension is especially important because it determines the goods, services, and standards that society values. The sociocultural force includes the demographics and values of a particular customer base.
Demographics are measures of the various characteristics of the people and social groups who make up a society. Age, gender, and income are examples of commonly used demographic characteristics.
Values refer to certain beliefs that people have about different forms of behavior or products. Changes in how a society values an item or a behavior can greatly affect a business. (Think of all the fads that have come and gone!)
The political and legal dimensions of the external environment include regulatory parameters within which an organization must operate. Political parties create or influence laws, and business owners must abide by these laws. Tax policies, trade regulations, and minimum wage legislation are just a few examples of political and legal issues that may affect the way an organization operates.
The technological dimension of the external environment impacts the scientific processes used in changing inputs (resources, labor, money) to outputs (goods and services). The success of many organizations depends on how well they identify and respond to external technological changes.
For example, one of the most significant technological dimensions of the last several decades has been the increasing availability and affordability of management information systems (also known as MIS). Through these systems, managers have access to information that can improve the way they operate and manage their businesses.
The economic dimension reflects worldwide financial conditions. Certain economic conditions of special concern to organizations include interest rates, inflation, unemployment rates, gross national product, and the value of the U.S. dollar against other currencies.
A favorable economic climate generally represents opportunities for growth in many industries, such as sales of clothing, jewelry, and new cars. But some businesses traditionally benefit in poor economic conditions. The alcoholic beverage industry, for example, traditionally fares well during times of economic downturn.
The global dimension of the environment refers to factors in other countries that affect U.S. organizations. Although the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling are the same whether a company operates domestically or internationally, managers encounter difficulties and risks on an international scale. Whether it be unfamiliarity with language or customs or a problem within the country itself (think mad cow disease), managers encounter global risks that they probably wouldn't have encountered if they had stayed on their own shores.